Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => North America, Palearctic : low (locally high) Arctic to temperate wet tundra of Holarctic: sw to ne Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., n British Is., Scandinavia, Baltic states e through n Russia including Novaya Zemlya (n of nw Siberia) and New Siberian Is. (n of ec Russia), through Chukotskiy Peninsula, w Kamchatka, n Kurile and n Sakhalin is. (e Russia); Aleutian Is., w, n Alaska, nw Canada, nc Canada n and w of Hudson Bay
  • Nonbreeding range => s North America, Africa, s Palearctic : coastal and inland wetlands from temperate to tropical zones n of Equator: British Is., w Europe, Mediterranean, n, nc Africa, Middle East, n Indian subcontinent to n Vietnam and e China, Taiwan, Korean Peninsula and Japan (except n); sw Canada and New England to wc Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula


  • C. a. arctica - ne Greenland | nw Africa
  • C. a. schinzii - se Greenland, Iceland, s British Is. to s Scandinavia and Baltic states | sw Europe and nw, w Africa
  • C. a. alpina - n Scandinavia to nw Siberia | w Europe, Mediterranean and Africa to India
  • C. a. sakhalina - e Russia to the Chukotsk Peninsula | e China, Korean Peninsula, Japan and Taiwan
  • C. a. kistchinski - Sea of Okhotsk to Kuril Is. and Kamchatka | e Asia
  • C. a. actites - Sakhalin I. (off se Russia) | e Asia
  • C. a. arcticola - nw Alaska to nw Canada | e China, Korean Peninsula and Japan
  • C. a. pacifica - w, s Alaska | w USA and w Mexico
  • C. a. hudsonia - c Canada | se USA
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-29 19:47:36
User Observations
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External links



adult breeding

adult non-breeding


first winter

summer plumage

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