Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Oriental Region : India through se Asia


  • P. e. nipalensis - e Afghanistan to Bangladesh
  • P. e. eupatria - s India and Sri Lanka
  • P. e. magnirostris - Andaman Is.
  • P. e. avensis - ne India and n Myanmar
  • P. e. siamensis - n, w Thailand and Indochina



Near Threatened


This species has been listed as Near Threatened on the basis of information about its population trend. Although it remains common in some areas and the status is clouded by feral/escaped populations, it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing to on-going habitat loss, persecution and trapping pressure.


This species inhabits a variety of moist and dry forests and woodlands, as well as cultivated areas, mangroves and plantations, mainly below 900 m, but reaching c.1,600 m locally (Juniper and Parr 1998). In Cambodia, the species inhabits dry deciduous forest and degraded semi-evergreen forest, but also riverine forest, in the lowlands mostly below 300 m (F. Goes in litt. 2013). It feeds on a range of wild and cultivated seeds, flowers, flower buds, nectar, grain, fruit and vegetables (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is considered a serious pest in some areas, with c.70% of its diet in farmed areas of Pakistan attributed to crops. It nests in tree cavities, palms, and very rarely buildings, and generally breeds from November to April, depending on the location (Juniper and Parr 1998).


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Updated at: 2024-02-28 09:15:35
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