Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => North America, Palearctic : coasts of high Arctic to n temperate North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean
  • Nonbreeding range => to ice-free waters near breeding range


  • C. g. mandtii - high Arctic coasts: w, e Greenland, Jan Mayen (ne of Iceland), Svalbard (n of Norway), n Siberia and n Alaska, ne Canada to n Labrador
  • C. g. arcticus - low Arctic to n temperate coasts: s Greenland, nw British Isles, s Scandinavia, and the White Sea (nw Russia), s Labrador and Newfoundland (se Canada) and Gulf of Maine
  • C. g. islandicus - coastal Iceland
  • C. g. faeroeensis - Faroe Is.
  • C. g. grylle - coastal Baltic Sea
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-21 05:38:00
User Observations
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External links


adult breeding

adult non-breeding

first winter

first summer

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