Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List
- Breeding range => Palearctic : Iceland through w, n Europe to w Russia
- Nonbreeding range => n Africa, s Asia
This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened as its global population has probably declined by more than 25% over the last three generations, and is continuing to decline, thus approaching the threshold for Vulnerable under the population size reduction criterion (A2abc+3bc+4abc).
This species breeds in a wide range of open habitats, such as tundra, moorland and heathland, bogs, saltmarshes, dunes, coastal meadows, hillsides, forest clearings, fallow land and occasionally in arable land. In the winter it is also found along seashores. It breeds from late March to August. The nest is a neat cup of grass, lined with finer grass and hair and is concealed amongst vegetation on the ground. Clutches range from two to seven eggs and clutch size increases with latitude (Tyler 2004). It feeds mainly on invertebrates but does consume some plant seeds in the autumn and winter (Snow and Perrins 1998).